Saturday, August 27, 2011

THE LAND OF ISRAEL CHRONOLOGY by Mark Zober and Marilyn Farber

(Early Years are Approximate)

BCE (Before the Commen Era)

< 4,500 Stone Age
10,000 People living on the Carmel
8,000 Agriculture
7,000 Wall built at Jericho
5,800 Appearance of clay pottery.

4,500 Chaolcolith (Copper Age)
3,500 People living on the Golan Heights
3,200 Canaanite Period (Bronze Age)
3,000 First cities
2,000 First city states
1,482 Thutmose III (Assyrian) conquers Meggido
1,217 “Israel” appears on the Merneptah Stele

1,200-1,050 Judges Period (Iron Age I)
1,025 Samuel last judge and Saul first king
1,004 David becomes King of Israel

965 Israelite Period (Iron Age 2-3)
Solomon becomes king (builds First Temple)
928 Split of the United Monarchy
722 Northern 10 tribes destroyed by Assyrians
586 First Temple Destroyed by the Babylonians

586-332 Persian Period
538 Edict of Cyrus (Jews allowed to return)
515 2nd Temple completed;
445 Return of Ezra and Nehemiah

332-167 Hellenistic Period -- Alexander the Great captures Land of Israel
198 Antiochus (Seleucids- Greeks in Syria) defeats the Ptolemies (Greeks in Egypt) and rules Palestine
169 Antiochus plunders the Temple
168 Maccabees revolt and defeat the Greeks

167-67 Hasmonean Period -- beginning of period of Jewish kings ruling Judaea
64 Pompey (Roman) conquers Land of Israel

63-334 CE Roman Period
37-4 Rule of Herod the Great
~4 Birth of Jesus

CE (Common Era)

~33 Crucifixion of Jesus;
66-73 The Great Revolt (by the Jews against the Romans
70 Fall of Jerusalem and destruction of 2nd Temple
73 Fall of Masada
132-135 Bar Kochba's Revolt (last Jewish revolt against Rome)
220 Yehuda HaNassi compiles the Mishna in Zippori;

324-638 Byzantine Period -- Roman Empire accepts Christianity under Emperor Constantine
Roman Empire moves capitol to Byzantine (Constantinople—in Turkey today)
325 Queen Helene (mother of Constantine) visits Jerusalem
335 Holy Sepulcher built
368 Jerusalem Talmud compiled in Tiberias

[b 570-d 632 Mohammed born in Mecca]

614 Persian Period – mass destruction of Churches in “Israel”

638 Early Muslim Period --Jerusalem ruled by Muslims
640 Muslims conquer Caesarea Maritima
660 Rule of the Umayyad Dynasty
691 Dome of the Rock is built
705 Al Aqsa Mosque is build
730 Rule of the Abassid Dynasty
970 Rule of the Fatimid Dynasty

1099-1291 Crusader Period –
1099 First Crusade
1146 2nd Crusade
1187 Saladin defeats Crusaders at Horns of Hattin (near Tiberius)
1191 3rd Crusade
1228 6th Crusade

1250-1517 Mamluk Period (former Egyptian vassels) – begin rule in Egypt
1291 Mamluks (Sultan Baibars) expel the Crusaders

1517-1917 Ottoman Period -- Sultan Selim I captures Land of Israel

1540 Suliman builds the walls of Jerusalem;
1720 Dahar-el-Omar conquers the North
1775 Ahmed al-Jazzar Pasha rules Akko
1799 Napolean invasion
1831 Ibahim Pasha (Egypt) conquest
1860 Jews begin to build communities outside the walls of the ‘Old City” of Jerusalem
1882 1st Aliyah (Immigration to Israel
1898 Theodore Herzl (father of Zionism-- b. 1860 d. 1904--visits Palestine)
1904 2nd Aliyah

1917-1948 British Mandate
1919 3rd Aliyah
1921 Jaffa riots
1929 Palestinian riots
1936-39 Arab rebellion
1945-48 Jewish illegal immigration by ships (Aliyah Bet)
Nov 29, 1947 UN votes to partition Palestine into 2 states, with Jerusalem becoming international
1947-1949 Arabs reject plan and war for ownership of Palestine begins

May 15, 1948 State of Israel established –fighting with 7 Arab states begins – War of Independence

1956, 1967, 1973 I srael-Arab wars --the Sinai War, the Six Day’s War, the Yom Kippur War

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