Thursday, October 6, 2011


FACTS ABOUT ISRAEL - SOURCE: CIA WORLD FACTBOOK Background: Following World War II, the British withdrew from their mandate of Palestine, and the UN partitioned the area into Arab and Jewish states, an arrangement rejected by the Arabs. Subsequently, the Israelis defeated the Arabs in a series of wars without ending the deep tensions between the two sides. The territories Israel occupied since the 1967 war are not included in the Israel country profile, unless otherwise noted. On 25 April 1982, Israel withdrew from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. In keeping with the framework established at the Madrid Conference in October 1991, bilateral negotiations were conducted between Israel and Palestinian representatives and Syria to achieve a permanent settlement. Israel and Palestinian officials signed on 13 September 1993 a Declaration of Principles (also known as the "Oslo Accords") guiding an interim period of Palestinian self-rule. Outstanding territorial and other disputes with Jordan were resolved in the 26 October 1994 Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. In addition, on 25 May 2000, Israel withdrew unilaterally from southern Lebanon, which it had occupied since 1982. In April 2003, US President BUSH, working in conjunction with the EU, UN, and Russia - the "Quartet" - took the lead in laying out a roadmap to a final settlement of the conflict by 2005, based on reciprocal steps by the two parties leading to two states, Israel and a democratic Palestine. However, progress toward a permanent status agreement was undermined by Israeli-Palestinian violence between September 2003 and February 2005. In the summer of 2005, Israel unilaterally disengaged from the Gaza Strip, evacuating settlers and its military while retaining control over most points of entry into the Gaza Strip. The election of HAMAS to head the Palestinian Legislative Council froze relations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). Ehud OLMERT became prime minister in March 2006 and presided over a 34-day conflict with Hizballah in Lebanon in June-August 2006 and a 23-day conflict with HAMAS in the Gaza Strip during December 2008 and January 2009. OLMERT, who in June 2007 resumed talks with PA President Mahmoud ABBAS, resigned in September 2008. Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU formed a coalition in March 2009 following a February 2009 general election. Direct talks launched in September 2010 collapsed following the expiration of Israel's 10-month partial settlement construction moratorium in the West Bank. Diplomatic initiatives to revive the negotiations through proximity talks began at the end of 2010. Geography ::ISRAEL Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E Map references: Middle East Area: total: 20,770 sq km country comparison to the world: 154 land: 20,330 sq km water: 440 sq km Area - comparative: slightly larger than New Jersey Land boundaries: total: 1,017 km border countries: Egypt 266 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km Coastline: 273 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm continental shelf: to depth of exploitation Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley Elevation extremes: lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m Natural resources: timber, potash, copper ore, natural gas, phosphate rock, magnesium bromide, clays, sand Land use: arable land: 15.45% permanent crops: 3.88% other: 80.67% (2005) Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (2008) Total renewable water resources: 1.7 cu km (2001) Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 2.05 cu km/yr (31%/7%/62%) per capita: 305 cu m/yr (2000) Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; droughts; periodic earthquakes Environment - current issues: limited arable land and natural freshwater resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation Geography - note: Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) is an important freshwater source; there are about 355 Israeli civilian sites including about 145 small outpost communities in the West Bank, 41 sites in the Golan Heights, and 32 in East Jerusalem (2010 est.) People and Society ::ISRAEL Nationality: noun: Israeli(s) adjective: Israeli Ethnic groups: Jewish 76.4% (of which Israel-born 67.1%, Europe/America-born 22.6%, Africa-born 5.9%, Asia-born 4.2%), non-Jewish 23.6% (mostly Arab) (2004) Religions: Jewish 75.6%, Muslim 16.9%, Christian 2%, Druze 1.7%, other 3.8% (2008 census) Languages: Hebrew (official), Arabic (used officially for Arab minority), English (most commonly used foreign language) Population: 7,473,052 (July 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 97 note: approximately 296,700 Israeli settlers live in the West Bank (2009 est.); approximately 19,100 Israeli settlers live in the Golan Heights (2008 est.); approximately 192,800 Israeli settlers live in East Jerusalem (2008 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.6% (male 1,057,113/female 1,008,978) 15-64 years: 62.2% (male 2,358,858/female 2,292,281) 65 years and over: 10.1% (male 331,034/female 424,788) (2011 est.) Median age: total: 29.4 years male: 28.7 years female: 30.1 years (2011 est.) Population growth rate: 1.584% (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 73 Birth rate: 19.24 births/1,000 population (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 98 Death rate: 5.47 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 175 Net migration rate: 2.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 Urbanization: urban population: 92% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Major cities - population: Tel Aviv-Yafo 3.219 million; Haifa 1.027 million; JERUSALEM (capital) 768,000 (2009) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female total population: 1 male(s)/female (2011 est.) Maternal mortality rate: 7 deaths/100,000 live births (2008) Infant mortality rate: total: 4.12 deaths/1,000 live births country comparison to the world: 200 male: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births female: 3.94 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 80.96 years country comparison to the world: 17 male: 78.79 years female: 83.24 years (2011 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 75 Health expenditures: 9.5% of GDP (2009) Physicians density: 3.633 physicians/1,000 population (2007) Hospital bed density: 5.83 beds/1,000 population (2007) Drinking water source: improved: urban: 100% of population rural: 100% of population total: 100% of population (2008) Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 100% of population rural: 100% of population total: 100% of population (2008) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 101 HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 7,500 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 109 HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 136 Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 22.9% (2001) Education expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2007) country comparison to the world: 30 Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 97.1% male: 98.5% female: 95.9% (2004 est.) School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 15 years female: 16 years (2008) Government ::ISRAEL Country name: conventional long form: State of Israel conventional short form: Israel local long form: Medinat Yisra'el local short form: Yisra'el Government type: parliamentary democracy Capital: name: Jerusalem geographic coordinates: 31 46 N, 35 14 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Friday in April; ends the Sunday between the holidays of Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur note: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem as its capital in 1950, but the US, like all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular - mehoz); Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration) National holiday: Independence Day, 14 May (1948); note - Israel declared independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday may occur in April or May Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law; note - since May 2003 the Constitution, Law, and Justice Committee of the Knesset has been working on a draft constitution Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, British Mandate regulations, and Jewish, Christian, and Muslim religious laws International law organization participation: has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2002 Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Shimon PERES (since 15 July 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Binyamin NETANYAHU (since 31 March 2009) cabinet: Cabinet selected by prime minister and approved by the Knesset (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president largely a ceremonial role and is elected by the Knesset for a seven-year term (one-term limit); election last held 13 June 2007 (next to be held in 2014 but can be called earlier); following legislative elections, the president, in consultation with party leaders, assigns the task of forming a governing coalition to a Knesset member who he or she determines is most likely to accomplish that task election results: Shimon PERES elected president; number of votes in first round - Shimon PERES 58, Reuven RIVLIN 37, Colette AVITAL 21; PERES elected president in second round with 86 votes (unopposed) Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset (120 seats; political parties are elected by popular vote and assigned seats for members on a proportional basis; members serve four-year terms) elections: last held on 10 February 2009 (next scheduled election to be held in 2013) election results: percent of vote by party (preliminary) - Kadima 23.2%, Likud-Ahi 22.3%, YB 12.1%, Labor 10.2%, SHAS 8.8%, United Torah Judaism 4.5%, United Arab List 3.5%, Hadash 3.4%, National Union 3.4%, New Movement-Meretz 3%, The Jewish Home 3%, Balad 2.6%; percent of vote by party (final) - Kadima 22.5%, Likud-Ahi 21.6%, YB 11.7%, Labor 9.9%, SHAS 8.5%, United Torah Judaism 4.4%, United Arab List 3.4%, Hadash 3.3%, National Union 3.3%, New Movement-Meretz 3%, The Jewish Home 2.9%, Balad 2.6%; seats by party - Kadima 28, Likud-Ahi 27, YB 15, Labor 13, SHAS 11, United Torah Judaism 5, United Arab List 4, National Union 4, HADASH 4, The Jewish Home 3, New Movement-Meretz 3, Balad 3 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (justices appointed by Judicial Selection Committee - made up of all three branches of the government; mandatory retirement age is 70) Political parties and leaders: Balad [Jamal ZAHALKA]; Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (HADASH) [Muhammad BARAKEH]; Independence [Ehud BARAK]; Kadima [Tzipora "Tzipi" LIVNI]; Labor Party [Eitan CABEL]; Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU]; National Union [Yaakov KATZ]; SHAS [Eliyahu YISHAI]; The Jewish Home (HaBayit HaYehudi) [Daniel HERSCHKOWITZ]; The New Movement-Meretz [Haim ORON]; United Arab List-Ta'al [Ibrahim SARSUR]; United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN]; Yisrael Beiteinu or YB [Avigdor LIEBERMAN] Political pressure groups and leaders: B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive Director] monitors human rights abuses; Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; YESHA Council of Settlements [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and opposes territorial compromise; Breaking the Silence [Yehuda SHAUL, Executive Director] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in the West Bank and Gaza Strip International organization participation: BIS, BSEC (observer), CERN (observer), CICA, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW (signatory), OSCE (partner), Paris Club (associate), PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Michael B.OREN chancery: 3514 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 364-5500 FAX: [1] (202) 364-5607 consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel B. SHAPIRO embassy: 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv 63903 telephone: [972] (3) 519-7575 FAX: [972] (3) 516-4390 consulate(s) general: Jerusalem; note - an independent US mission, established in 1928, whose members are not accredited to a foreign government Flag description: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag; the basic design resembles a Jewish prayer shawl (tallit), which is white with blue stripes; the hexagram as a Jewish symbol dates back to medieval times National anthem: name: "Hatikvah" (The Hope) lyrics/music: Naftali Herz IMBER/traditional, arranged by Samuel COHEN note: adopted 2004, unofficial since 1948; used as the anthem of the Zionist movement since 1897; the 1888 arrangement by Shmuel COHEN is thought to be based on the Romanian folk song "Carul cu boi" (The Ox Driven Cart) Economy ::ISRAEL Economy - overview: Israel has a technologically advanced market economy. It depends on imports of crude oil, grains, raw materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has intensively developed its agricultural and industrial sectors over the past 20 years. Cut diamonds, high-technology equipment, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the leading exports. Israel usually posts sizable trade deficits, which are covered by large transfer payments from abroad and by foreign loans. Roughly half of the government's external debt is owed to the US, its major source of economic and military aid. Israel's GDP, after contracting slightly in 2001 and 2002 due to the Palestinian conflict and troubles in the high-technology sector, grew about 5% per year from 2004-07. The global financial crisis of 2008-09 spurred a brief recession in Israel, but the country entered the crisis with solid fundamentals - following years of prudent fiscal policy and a series of liberalizing reforms - and a resilient banking sector, and the economy has shown signs of an early recovery. Following GDP growth of 4% in 2008, Israel's GDP slipped to 0.2% in 2009, but reached 3.4% in 2010, as exports rebounded. The global economic downturn affected Israel's economy primarily through reduced demand for Israel's exports in the United States and EU, Israel's top trading partners. Exports of goods and services account for about 40% of the country's GDP. The Israeli Government responded to the recession by implementing a modest fiscal stimulus package and an aggressive expansionary monetary policy - including cutting interest rates to record lows, purchasing government bonds, and intervening in the foreign currency market. The Bank of Israel began raising interest rates in the summer of 2009 when inflation rose above the upper end of the Bank's target and the economy began to show signs of recovery. GDP (purchasing power parity): $219.4 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 $209.8 billion (2009 est.) $208.1 billion (2008 est.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars GDP (official exchange rate): $213.1 billion (2010 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 4.6% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 78 0.8% (2009 est.) 4.2% (2008 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $29,800 (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $29,000 (2009 est.) $29,300 (2008 est.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 2.4% industry: 32.6% services: 65% (2010 est.) Labor force: 3.147 million (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 102 Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2% industry: 16% services: 82% (September 2008) Unemployment rate: 6.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 63 7.5% (2009 est.) Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 14.72% male: 15.67% female: 13.88% (2009) Population below poverty line: 23.6% note: Israel's poverty line is $7.30 per person per day (2007) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.5% highest 10%: 24.3% (2008) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.2 (2008) country comparison to the world: 67 35.5 (2001) Investment (gross fixed): 17.4% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 123 Budget: revenues: $61 billion expenditures: $69.08 billion (2010 est.) Taxes and other revenues: 28.6% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 94 Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -3.8% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 115 Public debt: 74.5% of GDP (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 25 77.6% of GDP (2009 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 90 3.3% (2009 est.) Central bank discount rate: 1% (31 December 2009) country comparison to the world: 111 2.5% (31 December 2008) Commercial bank prime lending rate: 4.492% (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 173 3.7% (31 December 2009 est.) Stock of narrow money: $31.24 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 55 $26.21 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Stock of broad money: $208.8 billion (31 December 2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 39 $195.7 billion (31 December 2008 est.) Stock of domestic credit: $175.6 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 $154.7 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Market value of publicly traded shares: $218.1 billion (31 December 2010) country comparison to the world: 31 $182.1 billion (31 December 2009) $134.5 billion (31 December 2008) Agriculture - products: citrus, vegetables, cotton; beef, poultry, dairy products Industries: high-technology products (including aviation, communications, computer-aided design and manufactures, medical electronics, fiber optics), wood and paper products, potash and phosphates, food, beverages, and tobacco, caustic soda, cement, construction, metals products, chemical products, plastics, diamond cutting, textiles, footwear Industrial production growth rate: 8.7% (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 35 Electricity - production: 53.04 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 Electricity - consumption: 47.16 billion kWh (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 48 Electricity - exports: 3.666 billion kWh (2008 est.) Electricity - imports: 3.666 billion kWh (2008 est.) Oil - production: 4,029 bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 97 Oil - consumption: 238,000 bbl/day (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 52 Oil - exports: 86,010 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 67 Oil - imports: 282,200 bbl/day (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 40 Oil - proved reserves: 1.94 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 95 Natural gas - production: 1.55 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 60 Natural gas - consumption: 3.25 billion cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 69 Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 115 Natural gas - imports: NA (2009 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 198.2 billion cu m (1 January 2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 45 Current account balance: $6.699 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 29 $7.063 billion (2009 est.) Exports: $55.84 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 50 $45.9 billion (2009 est.) Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment, software, cut diamonds, agricultural products, chemicals, textiles and apparel Exports - partners: US 32.1%, Hong Kong 6.3%, India 5.1%, Belgium 5.1% (2010) Imports: $57.93 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 46 $45.99 billion (2009 est.) Imports - commodities: raw materials, military equipment, investment goods, rough diamonds, fuels, grain, consumer goods Imports - partners: US 12.8%, China 8.1%, Germany 6.3%, Belgium 5.8%, Switzerland 4.6%, Italy 4.2% (2010) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $70.91 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27 $60.61 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Debt - external: $106 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 36 $93.25 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $77.82 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44 $69.16 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $64.97 billion (31 December 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 31 $57.37 billion (31 December 2009 est.) Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (ILS) per US dollar - 3.739 (2010) 3.93 (2009) 3.588 (2008) 4.14 (2007) 4.4565 (2006) Communications ::ISRAEL Telephones - main lines in use: 3.25 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 48 Telephones - mobile cellular: 9.022 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 70 Telephone system: general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East although not the largest domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; four privately-owned mobile-cellular service providers with countrywide coverage international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2008) Broadcast media: state broadcasting network, operated by the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA), broadcasts on 2 channels, one in Hebrew and the other in Arabic; 5 commercial channels including a channel broadcasting in Russian, a channel broadcasting Knesset proceedings, and a music channel supervised by a public body; multi-channel satellite and cable TV packages provide access to foreign channels; IBA broadcasts on 8 radio networks with multiple repeaters and Israel Defense Forces Radio broadcasts over multiple stations; about 15 privately-owned radio stations; overall more than 100 stations and repeater stations operating (2008) Internet country code: .il Internet hosts: 1.689 million (2010) country comparison to the world: 35 Internet users: 4.525 million (2009) country comparison to the world: 51 Transportation ::ISRAEL Airports: 48 (2010) country comparison to the world: 92 Airports - with paved runways: total: 30 over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 914 to 1,523 m: 11 under 914 m: 6 (2010) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 18 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 14 (2010) Heliports: 3 (2010) Pipelines: gas 211 km; oil 442 km; refined products 261 km (2010) Railways: total: 975 km country comparison to the world: 89 standard gauge: 975 km 1.435-m gauge (2010) Roadways: total: 18,290 km country comparison to the world: 115 paved: 18,290 km (includes 146 km of expressways) (2009) Merchant marine: total: 10 country comparison to the world: 113 by type: cargo 2, container 8 registered in other countries: 51 (Bermuda 3, Cyprus 1, Georgia 1, Honduras 1, Liberia 31, Malta 5, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 4, Panama 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3) (2010) Ports and terminals: Ashdod, Elat (Eilat), Hadera, Haifa Military ::ISRAEL Military branches: Israel Defense Forces (IDF), Israel Naval Forces (IN), Israel Air Force (IAF) (2010) Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory (Jews, Druzes) and voluntary (Christians, Muslims, Circassians) military service; both sexes are obligated to military service; conscript service obligation - 36 months for enlisted men, 21 months for enlisted women, 48 months for officers; pilots commit to 9 years service; reserve obligation to age 41-51 (men), 24 (women) (2010) Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,797,960 females age 16-49: 1,713,230 (2010 est.) Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,517,510 females age 16-49: 1,446,132 (2010 est.) Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 62,304 female: 59,418 (2010 est.) Military expenditures: 7.3% of GDP (2006) country comparison to the world: 6 Transnational Issues ::ISRAEL Disputes - international: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli-occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through further negotiation; Israel continues construction of a "seam line" separation barrier along parts of the Green Line and within the West Bank; Israel withdrew its settlers and military from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the West Bank in August 2005; Golan Heights is Israeli-occupied (Lebanon claims the Shab'a Farms area of Golan Heights); since 1948, about 350 peacekeepers from the UN Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) headquartered in Jerusalem monitor ceasefires, supervise armistice agreements, prevent isolated incidents from escalating, and assist other UN personnel in the region Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 150,000-420,000 (Arab villagers displaced from homes in northern Israel) (2007) Illicit drugs: increasingly concerned about ecstasy, cocaine, and heroin abuse; drugs arrive in country from Lebanon and, increasingly, from Jordan; money-laundering center

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