Saturday, September 17, 2011

Timeline Jaffa Israel

Timeline Early Bronze Age Earliest evidence of occupation in Jaffa Middle Bronze Age 1900-1530 BCE Jaffa established and fortified as Canaanite seaport Late Bronze Age 1530-1200 Jaffa thrives as Canaanite port Early 15th cent. Jaffa taken by Thutmose III 14th cent. Egyptian fort established by Ramesses II Iron Age 12th-11th cent. Canaanite port with contact with Philistia 10th cent. Jaffa continues as Canaanite port and served ancient Israel Late 8th cent. Jaffa fortified but besieged by Sennacherib of Assyria Late 4th cent. Jaffa and Dor given to Eshmunazzar of Sidon Hellenistic Period 330 Coins minted in Joppa under Alexander 318 Ptolemy (I) placed garrison in Joppa 315 Antigonus besieged and captured Joppa 301 Joppa fell under Ptolemaic rule 200 Joppa fell under Seleucid rule 176 Antiochus IV Epiphanes lands at Joppa to march to Jerusalem 143 Jaffa occupied by Simon; improves port (1 Macc. 11:1-6; 12:33-34; 13:11; also Ant. XIII.6.4) 139 Antiochus VII Sidetes attempts to receive payment from Simon for Joppa and Gezer but fails (1 Macc. 15:28-31) 134 Sidetes retakes Joppa after death of Simon and besieged Jerusalem; Hyrcanus ransoms Joppa 113 Joppa taken by Antiochus IX Kyzikenos and duties placed on trade Romans decree that Joppa be returned to the Hasmoneans (Ant. XIV.10.22) 104 Alexander Jannaeus dug trench from Antipatris (Kefar Saba) to sea near Joppa, and raised wall near Joppa (Ant. XIII.15.1) Roman Period 66 CE Cestius Gallus sent army from Caesarea to take Joppa (Wars II.18.10) 68 Vespasian used cavalry to retake Joppa (Wars III.9.2) 270-272 Jaffa under Palmyrene rule Byzantine Period Jaffa served as seaport for Christian pilgrims coming to Jerusalem. Medieval Period 636 Amr Ibn al-As captured Joppa for Arab tribes led by Omar 971 Fatimid army takes refuge from Arab army 1016 Earthquake hit region 1033 Dec. 5: Yafa devastated with other sites after earthquake and tsunami 1064-5 French Norman pilgrims visit and depart through Yafa 1099 Yafa razed by Fatimids and abandoned before being taken by Franks Yafa made a county and overseen by Rodger, seigneur of Rosay, as count Bishopric re-established under authority of Caesarea 1100 One-fourth of Yafa given to Pisans in treaty with Godfrey June: Venetian fleet arrived in Yafa July 18: Godfrey died in Yafa hospital Fortification rebuilt 1101 Egyptian army of 20,000 besieged Yafa but abandoned effort April 16: 32 ships of Genoese fleet arrived in Jaffa Genoese receive a street in Jaffa as part of treaty with Baldwin 1102 Baldwin sought refuge following a failed siege of Fatimid held Ascalon Oct. 13: heavy storm took one thousand lives and numerous ships 1103 Baldwin rebuilt city; defends against two attempted sieges by Fatimids Patriarch Arnulf granted land for the building of cemetery for St. Peter's church 1105 Fatimids besieged Yafa again 1106/1107 Russian Abbot, Daniel (Daniel 1888), passed through Yafa 1110 Fleet of sixty ships brings 10,000 Norwegians and English to Yafa 1113 Fatimids from Ashkelon fail again in a siege of Yafa 1114 Church of St. Peter given to patriarch of church of Holy Sepulcher 1115 Fatimids from Ashkelon fail again in a siege of Yafa but burn gates 1121 Fatimid siege of Jaffa was abandoned when relief force arrived 1123 Egyptian fleet destroyed by Venetians in a failed siege of Yafa; Venetians granted a street, bath, and oven 1133 Yafa rebelled against king Fulke 1187 Oct. 2: Yafa surrendered to al-Melek al-Adel Seif ed-Din, brother of Saladin 1191 Walls (and those of other coastal towns) destroyed when abandoned by Saladin 1192 July 28-August: Saladin besieges Yafa 1193 el-Melek el-Adel besieged Yafa, but it was reoccupied by Crusaders several months later 1198 Nov. 11: Small contingent of Crusaders holding Yafa massacred 1228 Walls rebuilt by Crusaders but stopped due to peace negotiations (see Crusader inscription) 1244 Yafa besieged following failed Crusader battle against Kharezmians, but he withdrew 1250 Saint Louis seeks to rebuild Yafa fortifications 1268 Mar. 7: Yafa besieged by Bibars, expelled Christians, and razed city 1334 Rabbi Issac Chelo visits Yafa 1336 Sultan en-Nasir Nasir-ed-Din Mohammed destroyed quay to prevent new Crusade form landing Ottoman Period 1642 Franciscan monks start settlement to accommodate pilgrims 1654 Latin Hospice founded (on place of Simon the Tanner's house) 1733 Soap industry revived in Jaffa 1770 Mameluke Ali Bey took Yafa from Osman Pasha 1772 Yafa returned to Ottomans 1772 July: Mameluke ruler Ali Bey besieged Yafa until Feb. 1773 and took it 1775 Mohammed Bey Abu-l-Dhahab besieged Yafa to retake it from Ali Bey's supporter; ends May 1776 1799 March 3rd-6th Bonaparte besieged Jaffa; plague follows day after Yafa besieged by el-Jazzar after dispute with Grand Wezir 1804 Yafa again besieged by Suleiman Pasha 1810-1820 Walls rebuilt around city by Abu-Nabbut 1815 Large mosque rebuilt; fountain built by Abu-Nabbut 1816 Eastern gate rebuilt 1831 Yafa surrendered to Ibrahim el-Ajami and Ibrahim Pasha 1839 Ashkenazi Jews settle in Yafa 1866 Foundation of The Jaffa American Colony by George Adams 1867 Mark Twain passes through Jaffa and comments on the "fiasco" of the American colony 1879 City walls demolished to accommodate growth of city 1892 Jaffa-Jerusalem Railway commenced 1909 Tel Aviv founded British Mandate 1917 British arrived in Jaffa 1945 Excavations begun by P. L. O. Guy State of Israel 1947-1950 Excavations by P. L. O. Guy (Israel Dept. of Antiquities and Museums) 1952 Excavations by John Bowman and B. S. J. Isserlin (University of Leeds) 1955-1981 Excavations by Jacob Kaplan and Haya-Ritter Kaplan 1961 Jaffa Museum opened by Kaplan 1994 Israel Antiquities Authority excavations commences under Martin Peilstocker 1997, 1999 Excavations in Kaplan's Area A by Tel Aviv University under direction of Ze'ev Herzog 2007 Jaffa Cultural Heritage Project (IAA-UCLA) established

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